Stable classification of 4-manifolds

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</wikitex>
</wikitex>
== Construction and examples ==
+
== Construction and examples I==
<wikitex>;
<wikitex>;
We begin with the construction of manifolds which give many stable diffeomorphism types of $4$-manifolds:
+
We begin with the construction of two classes of manifolds which can be used to give many stable diffeomorphism types of non-spinnable $4$-manifolds. The first is:
* $S^4$
+
* $S^2 \times S^2$
+
* $\CP^2$
* $\CP^2$
* $K:= \{x \in \CP^3 | \sum x_i^4 =0\}$, the Kummer surface.
+
The second is a large class of manifolds associated to certain algebraic data.
+
Let $\pi$ be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element $\alpha$ in $H_4(K(\pi,1))$ there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold $M(\alpha)$ with signature zero, fundamental group $\pi$ and $u_*([M]) = \alpha$. This is proved in several steps by first using the [[B-Bordism#Spectral sequences|Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence]]) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree $1$, $2$ and $3$: see [[Oriented bordism]] to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold $M$ together with a map $f: N \to K(\pi,1)$ with $f_*([M]) = \alpha$ and signature zero. Then by surgeries on $0$- and $1$-dimensional spheres one changes $M$ and $f$ in such a way, that $M$ is connected and $f_*$ is an isomorphism on $\pi_1$ (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with $\mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2)$ to make sure that $M$ is non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
Let $P=<g_1, \dots , g_n| r_1,\dots,r_m>$ be the presentation of a group $\pi$. Then we build a $2$-dimensional complex $X(P)$ by taking a wedge of $n$ circles and attaching a $2$-cell via each relation $r_i$. Then we thicken $X(P)$ to a smooth compact manifold with boundary $W(P)$ in $\mathbb R^5$ and consider its boundary denoted by $M(P)$. For details and why this is well defined see [[Thickenings]]. $M(P)$ is a smooth $4$-manifold with fundamental group $\pi$ and we add it to our list:
+
* $M(P)$
+
Let $\pi$ be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element $\alpha$ in $H_4(K(\pi,1))$ there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold $M(\alpha)$ with signature zero, fundamental group $\pi$ and $u_*([M]) = \alpha$. This is proved in several steps by first using the [[B-Bordism#Spectral sequences|Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence]]) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree $1$, $2$ and $3$: see [[Oriented bordism]] to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold $M$ together with a map $f: N \to K(\pi,1)$ with $f_*([M]) = \alpha$ and signature zero. Then by surgeries on $0$- and $1$-dimensional spheres one changes $M$ and $f$ in such a way, that $M$ is connected and $f_*$ is an isomorphism on $\pi_1$ (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with $\mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2)$ to make $M$ non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
+
* $M(\alpha)$
* $M(\alpha)$
</wikitex>
</wikitex>
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== Classification ==
== Classification ==
<wikitex>;
<wikitex>;
{{beginthm|Theorem}} Let $M$ and $N$ be $4$-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non spinnable universal covering. Then $M$ and $N$ are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.
+
{{beginthm|Theorem}} Let $M$ and $N$ be $4$-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non-spinnable universal covering. Then $M$ and $N$ are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.
+
The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group $\pi$ are given by $M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2)$.
+
{{endthm}}
{{endthm}}
The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem (\cite{Kreck1999}, [[Stable classification of manifolds]]). Namely, the normal $1$-type is $K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO$, see [[Stable classification of manifolds#The normal k-type|Stable classification of manfifolds]]. Thus the $B$-bordism group is $\Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1)$, which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to $\mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z)$ under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of [[Stable classification of manifolds#The stable classification of normal (k-1)-smoothings on 2k-dimensional manifolds|Stable classification of manifolds]].
The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem (\cite{Kreck1999}, [[Stable classification of manifolds]]). Namely, the normal $1$-type is $K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO$, see [[Stable classification of manifolds#The normal k-type|Stable classification of manfifolds]]. Thus the $B$-bordism group is $\Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1)$, which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to $\mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z)$ under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of [[Stable classification of manifolds#The stable classification of normal (k-1)-smoothings on 2k-dimensional manifolds|Stable classification of manifolds]].
+
+
+
+
+
The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group $\pi$ are given by $M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2)$. Here $k+s + \chi
$$
$$

Revision as of 16:55, 31 March 2011

The user responsible for this page is Matthias Kreck. No other user may edit this page at present.

This page has not been refereed. The information given here might be incomplete or provisional.

Contents

1 Introduction

In this page we report about the stable classification of closed oriented 4-manifolds. We will begin with a special class of closed oriented 4-manifolds, namely those, where the universal covering is not spinnable.

2 Construction and examples I

We begin with the construction of two classes of manifolds which can be used to give many stable diffeomorphism types of non-spinnable 4-manifolds. The first is:

  • \CP^2

The second is a large class of manifolds associated to certain algebraic data.

Let \pi be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element \alpha in H_4(K(\pi,1)) there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold M(\alpha) with signature zero, fundamental group \pi and u_*([M]) = \alpha. This is proved in several steps by first using the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree 1, 2 and 3: see Oriented bordism to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold
Tex syntax error
together with a map f: N \to K(\pi,1) with f_*([M]) = \alpha and signature zero. Then by surgeries on 0- and 1-dimensional spheres one changes
Tex syntax error
and f in such a way, that
Tex syntax error
is connected and f_* is an isomorphism on \pi_1 (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with \mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2) to make sure that
Tex syntax error
is non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
  • M(\alpha)

3 Invariants

The following is a complete list of invariants for the stable classification of closed, smooth oriented 4-manifolds whose universal covering is not spinnable:

  • The Euler characteristic \chi (M)
  • The signature \sigma (M)
  • The fundamanetal group \pi_1(M)
  • The image of the fundamental class [u_*([M])]\in H_4(K(\pi_1(M),1)/Out(\pi_1(M))of
    Tex syntax error
    .

Here u:M \to K(\pi_1(M),1) is a classifying map of the universal covering and Out(\pi_1(M)) is the outer automorphism group which acts on the homology of K(\pi_1(M),1).

4 Classification

Theorem 4.1. Let
Tex syntax error
and N be 4-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non-spinnable universal covering. Then
Tex syntax error
and N are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.

The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem ([Kreck1999], Stable classification of manifolds). Namely, the normal 1-type is K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO, see Stable classification of manfifolds. Thus the B-bordism group is \Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1), which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to \mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z) under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of Stable classification of manifolds.




The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group \pi are given by M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2). Here $k+s + \chi

\displaystyle  \xymatrix{  B \ar[r]^{} \ar[d]^{} & K(\pi, 1) \ar[d]^{\hat w_2} \\ BSO \ar[r]^{w_2} & K(\Zz/2, 2) }


5 Further discussion

...

6 References

$, $ and $: see [[Oriented bordism]] to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold $M$ together with a map $f: N \to K(\pi,1)$ with $f_*([M]) = \alpha$ and signature zero. Then by surgeries on -manifolds. We will begin with a special class of closed oriented 4-manifolds, namely those, where the universal covering is not spinnable.

2 Construction and examples I

We begin with the construction of two classes of manifolds which can be used to give many stable diffeomorphism types of non-spinnable 4-manifolds. The first is:

  • \CP^2

The second is a large class of manifolds associated to certain algebraic data.

Let \pi be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element \alpha in H_4(K(\pi,1)) there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold M(\alpha) with signature zero, fundamental group \pi and u_*([M]) = \alpha. This is proved in several steps by first using the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree 1, 2 and 3: see Oriented bordism to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold
Tex syntax error
together with a map f: N \to K(\pi,1) with f_*([M]) = \alpha and signature zero. Then by surgeries on 0- and 1-dimensional spheres one changes
Tex syntax error
and f in such a way, that
Tex syntax error
is connected and f_* is an isomorphism on \pi_1 (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with \mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2) to make sure that
Tex syntax error
is non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
  • M(\alpha)

3 Invariants

The following is a complete list of invariants for the stable classification of closed, smooth oriented 4-manifolds whose universal covering is not spinnable:

  • The Euler characteristic \chi (M)
  • The signature \sigma (M)
  • The fundamanetal group \pi_1(M)
  • The image of the fundamental class [u_*([M])]\in H_4(K(\pi_1(M),1)/Out(\pi_1(M))of
    Tex syntax error
    .

Here u:M \to K(\pi_1(M),1) is a classifying map of the universal covering and Out(\pi_1(M)) is the outer automorphism group which acts on the homology of K(\pi_1(M),1).

4 Classification

Theorem 4.1. Let
Tex syntax error
and N be 4-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non-spinnable universal covering. Then
Tex syntax error
and N are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.

The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem ([Kreck1999], Stable classification of manifolds). Namely, the normal 1-type is K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO, see Stable classification of manfifolds. Thus the B-bordism group is \Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1), which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to \mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z) under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of Stable classification of manifolds.




The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group \pi are given by M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2). Here $k+s + \chi

\displaystyle  \xymatrix{  B \ar[r]^{} \ar[d]^{} & K(\pi, 1) \ar[d]^{\hat w_2} \\ BSO \ar[r]^{w_2} & K(\Zz/2, 2) }


5 Further discussion

...

6 References

$- and 4-manifolds. We will begin with a special class of closed oriented 4-manifolds, namely those, where the universal covering is not spinnable.

2 Construction and examples I

We begin with the construction of two classes of manifolds which can be used to give many stable diffeomorphism types of non-spinnable 4-manifolds. The first is:

  • \CP^2

The second is a large class of manifolds associated to certain algebraic data.

Let \pi be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element \alpha in H_4(K(\pi,1)) there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold M(\alpha) with signature zero, fundamental group \pi and u_*([M]) = \alpha. This is proved in several steps by first using the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree 1, 2 and 3: see Oriented bordism to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold
Tex syntax error
together with a map f: N \to K(\pi,1) with f_*([M]) = \alpha and signature zero. Then by surgeries on 0- and 1-dimensional spheres one changes
Tex syntax error
and f in such a way, that
Tex syntax error
is connected and f_* is an isomorphism on \pi_1 (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with \mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2) to make sure that
Tex syntax error
is non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
  • M(\alpha)

3 Invariants

The following is a complete list of invariants for the stable classification of closed, smooth oriented 4-manifolds whose universal covering is not spinnable:

  • The Euler characteristic \chi (M)
  • The signature \sigma (M)
  • The fundamanetal group \pi_1(M)
  • The image of the fundamental class [u_*([M])]\in H_4(K(\pi_1(M),1)/Out(\pi_1(M))of
    Tex syntax error
    .

Here u:M \to K(\pi_1(M),1) is a classifying map of the universal covering and Out(\pi_1(M)) is the outer automorphism group which acts on the homology of K(\pi_1(M),1).

4 Classification

Theorem 4.1. Let
Tex syntax error
and N be 4-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non-spinnable universal covering. Then
Tex syntax error
and N are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.

The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem ([Kreck1999], Stable classification of manifolds). Namely, the normal 1-type is K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO, see Stable classification of manfifolds. Thus the B-bordism group is \Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1), which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to \mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z) under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of Stable classification of manifolds.




The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group \pi are given by M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2). Here $k+s + \chi

\displaystyle  \xymatrix{  B \ar[r]^{} \ar[d]^{} & K(\pi, 1) \ar[d]^{\hat w_2} \\ BSO \ar[r]^{w_2} & K(\Zz/2, 2) }


5 Further discussion

...

6 References

$-dimensional spheres one changes $M$ and $f$ in such a way, that $M$ is connected and $f_*$ is an isomorphism on $\pi_1$ (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with $\mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2)$ to make $M$ non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by * $M(\alpha)$ == Invariants == ; The following is a complete list of invariants for the stable classification of closed, smooth oriented $-manifolds whose universal covering is not spinnable: * The Euler characteristic $\chi (M)$ * The signature $\sigma (M)$ * The fundamanetal group $\pi_1(M)$ * The image of the fundamental class $[u_*([M])]\in H_4(K(\pi_1(M),1)/Out(\pi_1(M))$of $M$. Here $u:M \to K(\pi_1(M),1)$ is a classifying map of the universal covering and $Out(\pi_1(M))$ is the outer automorphism group which acts on the homology of $K(\pi_1(M),1)$. == Classification == ; {{beginthm|Theorem}} Let $M$ and $N$ be $-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non spinnable universal covering. Then $M$ and $N$ are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree. The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group $\pi$ are given by $M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2)$. {{endthm}} The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem (\cite{Kreck1999}, [[Stable classification of manifolds]]). Namely, the normal 4-manifolds. We will begin with a special class of closed oriented 4-manifolds, namely those, where the universal covering is not spinnable.

2 Construction and examples I

We begin with the construction of two classes of manifolds which can be used to give many stable diffeomorphism types of non-spinnable 4-manifolds. The first is:

  • \CP^2

The second is a large class of manifolds associated to certain algebraic data.

Let \pi be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element \alpha in H_4(K(\pi,1)) there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold M(\alpha) with signature zero, fundamental group \pi and u_*([M]) = \alpha. This is proved in several steps by first using the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree 1, 2 and 3: see Oriented bordism to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold
Tex syntax error
together with a map f: N \to K(\pi,1) with f_*([M]) = \alpha and signature zero. Then by surgeries on 0- and 1-dimensional spheres one changes
Tex syntax error
and f in such a way, that
Tex syntax error
is connected and f_* is an isomorphism on \pi_1 (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with \mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2) to make sure that
Tex syntax error
is non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
  • M(\alpha)

3 Invariants

The following is a complete list of invariants for the stable classification of closed, smooth oriented 4-manifolds whose universal covering is not spinnable:

  • The Euler characteristic \chi (M)
  • The signature \sigma (M)
  • The fundamanetal group \pi_1(M)
  • The image of the fundamental class [u_*([M])]\in H_4(K(\pi_1(M),1)/Out(\pi_1(M))of
    Tex syntax error
    .

Here u:M \to K(\pi_1(M),1) is a classifying map of the universal covering and Out(\pi_1(M)) is the outer automorphism group which acts on the homology of K(\pi_1(M),1).

4 Classification

Theorem 4.1. Let
Tex syntax error
and N be 4-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non-spinnable universal covering. Then
Tex syntax error
and N are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.

The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem ([Kreck1999], Stable classification of manifolds). Namely, the normal 1-type is K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO, see Stable classification of manfifolds. Thus the B-bordism group is \Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1), which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to \mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z) under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of Stable classification of manifolds.




The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group \pi are given by M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2). Here $k+s + \chi

\displaystyle  \xymatrix{  B \ar[r]^{} \ar[d]^{} & K(\pi, 1) \ar[d]^{\hat w_2} \\ BSO \ar[r]^{w_2} & K(\Zz/2, 2) }


5 Further discussion

...

6 References

$-type is $K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO$, see [[Stable classification of manifolds#The normal k-type|Stable classification of manfifolds]]. Thus the $B$-bordism group is $\Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1)$, which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to $\mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z)$ under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of [[Stable classification of manifolds#The stable classification of normal (k-1)-smoothings on 2k-dimensional manifolds|Stable classification of manifolds]]. $$ \xymatrix{ B \ar[r]^{} \ar[d]^{} & K(\pi, 1) \ar[d]^{\hat w_2} \ BSO \ar[r]^{w_2} & K(\Zz/2, 2) } $$
== Further discussion == ; ... == References == {{#RefList:}} [[Category:Manifolds]]4-manifolds. We will begin with a special class of closed oriented 4-manifolds, namely those, where the universal covering is not spinnable.

2 Construction and examples I

We begin with the construction of two classes of manifolds which can be used to give many stable diffeomorphism types of non-spinnable 4-manifolds. The first is:

  • \CP^2

The second is a large class of manifolds associated to certain algebraic data.

Let \pi be a finitely presentable group. Then for each element \alpha in H_4(K(\pi,1)) there is a smooth, closed, connected, oriented, non-spinnable manifold M(\alpha) with signature zero, fundamental group \pi and u_*([M]) = \alpha. This is proved in several steps by first using the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence) and the fact that the oriented bordism groups are zero in degree 1, 2 and 3: see Oriented bordism to show that there is a closed, smooth, oriented manifold
Tex syntax error
together with a map f: N \to K(\pi,1) with f_*([M]) = \alpha and signature zero. Then by surgeries on 0- and 1-dimensional spheres one changes
Tex syntax error
and f in such a way, that
Tex syntax error
is connected and f_* is an isomorphism on \pi_1 (reference). Finally we form the connected sum with \mathbb{CP}^2 \oplus (-\mathbb {CP}^2) to make sure that
Tex syntax error
is non-spinnable. This manifold is of course not unique but we will see that it is unique up to stable diffeomorphisms and we abbreviate it by
  • M(\alpha)

3 Invariants

The following is a complete list of invariants for the stable classification of closed, smooth oriented 4-manifolds whose universal covering is not spinnable:

  • The Euler characteristic \chi (M)
  • The signature \sigma (M)
  • The fundamanetal group \pi_1(M)
  • The image of the fundamental class [u_*([M])]\in H_4(K(\pi_1(M),1)/Out(\pi_1(M))of
    Tex syntax error
    .

Here u:M \to K(\pi_1(M),1) is a classifying map of the universal covering and Out(\pi_1(M)) is the outer automorphism group which acts on the homology of K(\pi_1(M),1).

4 Classification

Theorem 4.1. Let
Tex syntax error
and N be 4-dimensional compact smooth manifolds with non-spinnable universal covering. Then
Tex syntax error
and N are stably diffeomorphic if and only if the invariants above agree.

The proof of this result is an easy consequence of the general stable classification theorem ([Kreck1999], Stable classification of manifolds). Namely, the normal 1-type is K(\pi,1) \times BSO \to BO, see Stable classification of manfifolds. Thus the B-bordism group is \Omega ^{SO}(K(\pi_1,1), which by the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence is ismorphic to \mathbb Z \oplus H_4(K(\pi,1);\mathbb Z) under the signature and the image of the fundamental class. Now the statement follows from Theorem 3.1 of Stable classification of manifolds.




The different stable diffeomorphism classes of manifolds with fundamental group \pi are given by M(\alpha ) \sharp_k \CP^2 \sharp_s (-\CP^2). Here $k+s + \chi

\displaystyle  \xymatrix{  B \ar[r]^{} \ar[d]^{} & K(\pi, 1) \ar[d]^{\hat w_2} \\ BSO \ar[r]^{w_2} & K(\Zz/2, 2) }


5 Further discussion

...

6 References

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